Sources / Documents

Following is a selection of images representing the sorts of documents
used in the research for DiCarlo: Buffalo's First Family of Crime.

DiCarlo family arrives in New York
Vincenza Grasso DiCarlo and children arrive in New York, 1906.
Giuseppe DiCarlo draft registration
Giuseppe DiCarlo World War I draft registration, 1918.
Giuseppe DiCarlo naturalization certificate
Giuseppe DiCarlo Naturalization certificate, July 7, 1920.
FBI memo from 1924
FBI memo on Joseph DiCarlo's intimidation trial, 1924.
DiCarlo bertillon card
Buffalo Police Department "Bertillon" card for DiCarlo, 1945.
Cleveland Police mugshot
Cleveland Police Department mugshot of Joseph DiCarlo, 1952.
Joseph DiCarlo death certificate
Joseph DiCarlo death certificate, State of New York, Oct. 11 1980.

Newspaper article from 1922
BME, Nov. 26, 1922.
Newspaper article from 1923
BT, Aug. 23, 1923.
Newspaper article from 1923
BT, Sept. 25, 1923.
Newspaper article from 1924
BME, Jan. 20, 1924.
Newspaper article from 1924
BME, Feb. 12, 1924.
Newspaper article from 1936
BEN, Sept. 23, 1936.
Newspaper article from 1939
BCE, Nov. 5, 1939.

Filippo Mazzara naturalization certificate
F. Mazzara naturalization certificate, 1921.
Stefano Magaddino naturalization certificate
S. Magaddino naturalization certificate, 1924.
Angelo Palmeri naturalization certificate
A. Palmeri naturalization certificate, 1925.
Pinnavaia wanted poster
S. Pinnavaia wanted poster, 1923.
Magaddino crime family chart
Magaddino Crime Family chart, 1963.
Sam Pieri arrest record
FBI arrest record for Sam Pieri, 1979.
Pascal Calabrese sketch
Sketch leads to Calabrese arrest.

Following is a partial list of sources for DiCarlo: Buffalo's First Family of Crime.
More than three thousand specific source citations are found in the books' endnotes.


  • Rose Lombardo,
  • Ben LaMonte,
  • Philip G. Mazzara,
  • Joe Giambra,
  • Ronald Fino,
  • Pete Barbera


  • Albany Times-Union,
  • Batavia Daily News,
  • Brooklyn Daily Eagle,
  • Brooklyn Standard Union,
  • Buffalo Commercial Advertiser,
  • Buffalo Courier Express,
  • Buffalo Daily Courier,
  • Buffalo Enquirer,
  • Buffalo Evening News,
  • Buffalo Morning Express,
  • Buffalo News,
  • Buffalo Times,
  • Cleveland Press,
  • Cleveland Plain Dealer,
  • Chicago Tribune,
  • Detroit Free Press,
  • Hamilton Herald,
  • Il Corriere Italiano,
  • Lockport Union Sun and Journal,
  • Miami Daily News,
  • New York Daily News,
  • New York Evening World,
  • New York Herald,
  • New York Post,
  • New York Sun,
  • New York Times,
  • Niagara Gazette,
  • North Tonawanda Evening News,
  • Olean Evening Times,
  • Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,
  • Pittsburgh Press,
  • Rochester Democrat and Chronicle,
  • Rochester Times-Union,
  • Syracuse Herald Journal,
  • Toledo Blade,
  • Toronto Daily Star,
  • Troy Times Record,
  • Utica Daily Press,
  • Youngstown Vindicator,
  • LIFE Magazine,
  • TIME Magazine,
  • other periodicals.


  • Joseph J. DiCarlo,
  • Stefano Magaddino,
  • Frederico Randaccio,
  • Salvatore Pieri,
  • Salvatore DiCarlo,
  • Rosario Carlisi,
  • Daniel G. Sansanese,
  • John Cammilleri,
  • Sam Frangiamore,
  • Joseph Fino,
  • Antonino Magaddino,
  • Peter A. Magaddino,
  • Albert Billiteri,
  • William Sciolino,
  • Daniel Domino,
  • Carl J. Rizzo,
  • John R. Catanzaro,
  • Charles Anthony Cassaro,
  • James V. LaDuca,
  • Joseph A. Pieri,
  • Laborers Union Local 210,
  • Frank Sinatra.


  • Buffalo Police Department reports, correspondence, witness statements and arrest records.
  • Cleveland Police Department reports.
  • State of New York v. Pietro Lagatutta, Salvatore Rufino, Giuseppe Rufino and Giuseppe Masseria, 1913.
  • State of New York v. Joseph DiCarlo, 1938.
  • State of New Jersey v. Bartolomeo Fontana, Francesco Puma, Giuseppe Lombardi, 1921-1922.
  • State of New Jersey extradition records, 1844-1968.
  • United States v. Giuseppe Calicchio et al., 1910.
  • United States v. DiCarlo, Capodicaso, Ruffino and Gialelli, 1924.
  • United States v. Spallino et al., 1927.
  • United States v. Samuel DiCarlo, 1932.
  • United States v. Charles Caci, Stephen A. Cino, Pasquale A. Natarelli, Frederico G. Randaccio and Louis Sorgi, 1967.
  • United States v. Thomas J. Carella, Daniel J. Domino, Joseph C. Erhart and Salvatore Pieri, 1967.
  • United States v. Mason Tenders District Council of Greater New York, 1994.
  • United States v. Laborers’ International Union of North America, AFL-CIO, draft complaint, 1995.
  • United States, appellee, v. Russell A. Bufalino, et al, 1960.
  • United States, appellee, v. Vito Agueci, et al, appellants, 1962.
  • United States, appellee, v. Charles Caci, Stephen A. Cino, Pasquale A. Natarelli, Frederico Randaccio and Louis Sorgi; Defendants-Appellants, 1968.
  • Stern v. United States, 1953.
  • Giordano v. United States, 1953.
  • Jin Fuey Moy v. United States, 1920.
  • Bankruptcy docket, Buffalo, NY, 1910.
  • Bankruptcy docket, Buffalo, NY, 1912.
  • Last Will and Testament of Vincenza DiCarlo.
  • Probate court records for the estate of Philip Mazzara.
  • Prisoner information for Joseph DiCarlo.
  • New York State inmate registers for Sing Sing Prison.
  • New Jersey State inmate registers for Trenton.
  • Atlanta Federal Prison files for Giuseppe Morello, Ignazio Lupo and Thomas Pennachio.


  • Naturalization documents for Giuseppe DiCarlo, Gaspare Magaddino and others.
  • Immigration and Naturalization Service files for Joseph DiCarlo, Umberto Randaccio, Cassandro Bonasera.
  • Immigration and Naturalization Service investigation of Panaro's Lounge raid, 1967.
  • Passenger manifests of arrivals in New York City and Niagara Falls, NY.
  • Hearings of the House Subcommittee on Crime, 1996.
  • Hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, "25 Years After Valachi," 1988.
  • New Jersey State Commission of Investigation, Report and Recommendations on Organized Crime Infiltration of Dental Care Plan Organizations, 1981.
  • New York State Commission of Investigation, An Investigation of Certain Organized Crime Activities and Problems of Law Enforcement in Rochester, New York, 1966.
  • McClellan Committee, U.S. Senate, Hearings.
  • Reuter, Arthur L., “Report on the activities and associations of persons identified as present at the residence of Joseph Barbara, Sr., at Apalachin, New York, on November 14, 1957, and the reasons for their presence,” State of New York Executive Department, Office of the Commissioner of Investigation, April 23, 1958.
  • Kefauver Committee, U.S. Senate, Hearings and Committee Reports.
  • Immigration Commission report to U.S. Senate, 1911.
  • U.S. Secret Service daily reports of William J. Flynn, 1909.
  • U.S. Secret Service daily reports of John A. Adams, 1911.


  • Birth, marriage and death records in United States and Italy,
  • Christening and and burial records in United States,
  • Land and business records,
  • Local directory information,
  • Military draft registrations,
  • Passport applications,
  • Pistol permit applications,
  • Public school records,
  • U.S. Census records


  • Abadinsky, Howard, Organized Crime, Ninth Edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010.
  • Alexander, Shana, The Pizza Connection: Lawyers, Money, Drugs, Mafia, New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988.
  • Allen, Edward J., Merchants of Menace – The Mafia: A Study of Organized Crime, Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1962.
  • Allen, Oliver E., The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993.
  • Asbury, Herbert, The Gangs of Chicago: An Informal History of the Chicago Underworld, New York: New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1986.
  • Asbury, Herbert, The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld, Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1928.
  • Bonanno, Bill, Bound by Honor, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
  • Bonanno, Joseph, with Sergio Lalli, A Man of Honor, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
  • Butler, Joseph Green, The History of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley, Ohio, Volume 1, Chicago: American Historical Society, 1921.
  • Chepesiuk, Ron, Gangsters of Miami, Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 2010.
  • Cipolla, Giuseppe, Le Famiglie Di Vallelunga, Commune di Vallelunga Pratameno, 1995.
  • Critchley, David, The Origin of Organized Crime in America, New York: Routledge, 2009.
  • Damone, Vic, with David Chanoff, Singing Was the Easy Part, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.
  • Davis, John H., Mafia Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Gambino Crime Family, New York: HarperTorch, 1994.
  • Deitche, Scott M., The Silent Don: The Criminal Underworld of Santo Trafficante Jr., Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 2007.
  • Demaris, Ovid, Captive City: Chicago in Chains, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1969.
  • Demaris, Ovid, The Last Mafioso, New York: Times Books, 1981.
  • Downey, Patrick, Gangster City: The History of the New York Underworld, 1900-1935, Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 2004.
  • Dubro, James, Mob Rule: Inside the Canadian Mafia, Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1985
  • Dubro, James and Robin F. Rowland, King of the Mob: Rocco Perri and the Women Who Ran His Rackets, Markham, Ontario: Viking, Penguin Books Canada, 1987.
  • Earley, Pete and Gerald Shur, WITSEC: Inside the Federal Witness Protection Program, New York: Bantam Books, 2002.
  • Edwards, Peter, Northern Connection: Inside Canada’s Deadliest Mafia Family, Montreal: Optimum Publishing, 2006.
  • Edwards, Peter and Antonio Nicaso, Deadly Silence, Toronto: Macmillan Canada, 1993.
  • Fentress, James, Rebels and Mafiosi: Death in a Sicilian Landscape, Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
  • Fenwick, Charles G., Political Systems in Transition: War-Time and After, New York: The Century Co., 1920.
  • Fiaschetti, Michael, as told to Prosper Buranelli, The Man They Couldn’t Escape: The Adventures of Detective Fiaschetti of the Italian Squad, London: Selwyn, 1928.
  • Flynn, William J., The Barrel Mystery, New York: The James A. McCann Company, 1919.
  • Frasca, Dom, King of Crime, Crown Publishers, 1959.
  • Gentile, Nick, Vita di Capomafia, Rome: Editori Riuniti, 1963.
  • Gentry, Curt, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991.
  • Griffin, Joe with Don DeNevi, Mob Nemesis: How the FBI Crippled Organized Crime, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002.
  • Gryta, Matt, with George Karalus, The Real Teflon Don: How an Elite Team of New York State Troopers Helped Take Down America’s Most Powerful Mafia Family, Buffalo: Cazenovia Books, 2012.
  • Guthman, Edwin O. and Jeffrey Shulman, editors, Robert Kennedy: In His Own Words, New York: Bantam Press, 1988.
  • Hamill, Pete, Why Sinatra Matters, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1998.
  • Helmer, William J. and Arthur J. Bilek, St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, Nashville: Cumberland House, 2004.
  • Hess, Henner, translated by Ewald Osers, Mafia and Mafiosi: Origin, Power and Myth, New York: University Press, 1998.
  • Hill, Henry Wayland, editor in chief, Municipality of Buffalo, New York: A History, 1720-1923, New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1923.
  • Humphreys, Adrian, The Enforcer, Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 1993.
  • Hunt, C.W., Whisky and Ice: The Saga of Ben Kerr, Canada’s Most Daring Rumrunner, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1996.
  • Illman, Harry R., Unholy Toledo: The True Story of Detroit’s Purple-Licavoli Gangs’ Take-over of an Ohio City, San Francisco: Polemic Press Publications, 1985.
  • Jacobs, James B., with Christopher Panarella and Jay Worthington, Busting the Mob: United States v. Cosa Nostra, New York: New York University Press, 1994.
  • Kavieff, Paul R., The Violent Years: Prohibition and the Detroit Mobs, Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 2001.
  • Katz, Leonard, Uncle Frank: The Biography of Frank Costello, New York: Drake Publishers, 1973.
  • Keefe, Rose, Guns and Roses: The Untold Story of Dean O’Banion, Nashville: Cumberland House, 2003.
  • Keefe, Rose, The Starker: Big Jack Zelig, the Becker-Rosenthal Case, and the Advent of the Jewish Gangster, Nashville: Cumberland House, 2008.
  • Kefauver, Estes, Crime in America, Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1951.
  • Kennedy, Robert F., The Enemy Within, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960.
  • King, Russell, Sicily, Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1973.
  • Kobler, John, Capone: The Life and World of Al Capone, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1971.
  • Lacey, Robert, Little Man: Meyer Lansky and the Gangster Life, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.
  • Lait, Jack, and Lee Mortimer, Chicago Confidential, New York: Dell Publishing, 1950.
  • Lamothe, Lee and Antonio Nicaso, Blood Lines: The Rise and Fall of the Mafia’s Royal Family, Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 2001.
  • Lay, Shawn, Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York, New York: New York University Press, 1995.
  • Lewis, Jerry, Dean & Me: A Love Story, New York: Broadway Books, 2005.
  • Lewis, Norman, The Honored Society, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1964.
  • Maas, Peter, The Valachi Papers, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1968.
  • McClellan, John J., Crime Without Punishment, New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1962.
  • McPhaul, Jack, Johnny Torrio: First of the Gang Lords, New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1970.
  • Meyer, Joseph J., The Wet City: Buffalo, New York, During the Prohibition Era, 1920-1933, Allegheny College, 1996.
  • Morello, Celeste A., Before Bruno: The History of the Philadelphia Mafia, Book 1, 1880-1931, published by the author, 1999.
  • Morton, James, Gangland International: An Informal History of the Mafia and other Mobs in the Twentieth Century, Little, Brown and Company, 1999.
  • Navasky, Victor S., Kennedy Justice, New York: Atheneum, 1971.
  • Nelli, Humbert S., The Business of Crime: Italians and Syndicate Crime in the United States, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (Phoenix edition) 1981.
  • Newark, Tim, Lucky Luciano: The Real and the Fake Gangster, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2010.
  • Newton, Michael, Mr. Mob: The Life and Crimes of Moe Dalitz, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2009.
  • Nicaso, Antonio, Rocco Perri: The Story of Canada’s Most Notorious Bootlegger, Mississauga, Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada, 2004, p. 60.
  • Pietruszka, David, Rothstein: The Life, Times, and Murder of the Criminal Genius Who Fixed the 1919 World Series, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004.
  • Pistone, Joseph D., with Richard Woodley, Donnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia, New York: New American Library, 1987.
  • Porrello, Rick, The Rise and Fall of the Cleveland Mafia: Corn Sugar and Blood, Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 1995.
  • Raab, Selwyn, Five Families: The Rise, Decline and Resurgence of America’s Most Powerful Mafia Empires, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006.
  • Reid, Ed, Mafia, New York: Random House, 1952.
  • Reid, Ed, The Grim Reapers: The Anatomy of Organized Crime in America, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1969.
  • Reid, Ed, The Shame of New York, New York: Random House, 1953.
  • Roemer, William F. Jr., Roemer: Man Against the Mob, New York: Donald I. Fine, 1989.
  • Rowe, Thomas C., Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole, Binghamton NY: Haworth Press, 2006.
  • Schiavo, Giovanni, The Truth About the Mafia, New York: Vigo Press, 1962.
  • Schneider, Stephen, Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada, Mississauga, Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada, 2009.
  • Schoenberg, Robert J., Mr. Capone, New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
  • Scott, Peter Dale, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
  • Servadio, Gaia, Mafioso: A History of the Mafia from its Origins to the Present Day, London: Secker & Warburg, 1976.
  • Shelton, Brenda K., Reformers In Search of Yesterday / Buffalo in the 1890s, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1976.
  • Smith, Dennis Mack, A History of Sicily: Medieval Sicily, 800-1713, New York: Viking Press, 1968.
  • Sterling, Claire, Octopus: The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990.
  • Thompson, Craig and Allen Raymond, Gang Rule in New York, New York: Dial Press, 1940.
  • Turkus, Burton B. and Sid Feder, Murder, Inc.: The Story of the Syndicate, New York: Da Capo Press, 1992.
  • Ungar, Sanford J., FBI, Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.
  • United States Treasury Department Bureau of Narcotics, Mafia: The Government’s Secret File on Organized Crime, New York: Collins, 2007.
  • Valentine, Douglas, The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America’s War on Drugs, London: Verso, 2009.
  • Vogel, Michael N., Ed Patton and Paul Redding, America’s Crossroads: Buffalo’s Canal Street / Dante Place: The Making of a City, New York: Western New York Heritage Institute, 1993.
  • Wolf, George, with Joseph DiMona, Frank Costello: Prime Minister of the Underworld, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1974.

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Thomas Hunt and Michael A. Tona
All Rights Reserved

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